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  Youth and Community Work in the 70s

This chapter of the Fairbairn-Milson Report (Youth and Community Work in the 70s) accommodates some necessary and bold statements about the nature of the work. younger individuals. It advocates Community improvement apply and political schooling, and has implications for different teams and establishments of society.

Contents: Introduction · Autonomy · Community Improvement Influence · Progress in the direction of Adulthood · Political Schooling · International Understanding · Our Recipe · Some Impression · Future of the Young Adult Group · footnotes · methods to point out this work
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[page 73] 191. In this context, we’re notably involved about the older members of our constituency who truly determine themselves as "adults" quite than "youths", although it’s troublesome to do so, as the debate in paragraph 175 has already shown.

192. The problem, as in most social and instructional preparations, is to acknowledge similarities and differences; How can we greatest recognize that they are each adults and younger? An apprenticeship that requires their maturity might outcome in them being unable to determine their wants as a result of they’re at a specific cultural stage. As well as, it might be that if they don’t seem to be identified for administrative functions as a gaggle, they lose help and the merger is an excuse for many who do little work to do much less youth work. We consider that in the near future they should have the title and perhaps the greatest youth and group service; any potential distinction which will lead to minimizing, we consider, if the service takes on the character we describe – grownup relationships, group improvement, self-willpower.

193. Once we looked at the present youth service, we found shortcomings and failures amongst the profitable successes; Extra particularly, we found many individuals nervous about the explosive hole between pseudo and achievement. One or two of those failures relate to a particular drive for the upper age group: for example, the service has too young an image that it presents little actual duty and that it seeks to differentiate between "young people"; from the remainder of the group. Many of those suspicions are starting to take shape if we use the criterion described earlier that 'Youth Service' is a part of group improvement and that its main goal is to involve young individuals critically in their society. When younger individuals start to transfer into 'maturity', the current youth offerings are much less and less meaningful for them.

194. Our objective is to propose methods to vary this. Nevertheless, we consider that we can’t have permanent responses to the problems of youth work, with out re-considering the place of young individuals in society and radically the attitudes of younger individuals. This reprocessing has begun elsewhere. The minimum age for franchising will quickly be 18 years, and the majority age has lately been reported to the Lord by the High Chancellor. Mr. Latey Committee. (1) The Latey Committee advisable that the age at which a minority ceases to be lowered from 21 to 18 and has now been accredited by the authorities. Nevertheless, the Latey Committee didn’t create the state of affairs, however saw what had already developed; The earlier social maturity of younger individuals is a properly-established reality, the Committee's recommendations solely recognize it. The independence of younger individuals has been widespread earlier than the statutory 21 years; largely as a result of they deserve a wage that relieves them of their dependence on their mother and father. Many, particularly women, are married earlier than they are 21, and they will already start their very own families. We consider that it’s imperative that each one young individuals in working life and leisure time recognize their changed standing. Current scholar issues have already proven some consequences for the incontrovertible fact that the rising maturity of upper schooling college students shouldn’t be recognized at a time when all their tendencies and talents are extra of an grownup position. Nevertheless, in many elements, younger people who are already in the office should be more mature, but this does not acknowledge too typically. So we ask you to work with these young individuals, by way of which they and their societies might be helped to mature as a part of an lively society that responds to vary and improvement. We ask you to work with younger adults based mostly on the rules of group improvement for all businesses working with younger individuals, not just people who make up the youth service.

195. Those who work with younger adults not contemplate themselves "service providers" who put younger individuals in the place of "receivers" who’re typically given "shadow" duty. Non-directive approaches are uncommon in schooling, however they’re essential if this work is more than only a technique of providing recreation alternatives by competing with the business world. In accordance with NAYSO, "if the purpose of our society is to develop a discriminatory, critical and divisive adult, young people must have the opportunity to exercise autonomy before the adult." Nevertheless, there are too few adults who’re prepared to offer young individuals the opportunity to work for themselves. In the future, younger individuals must be given this chance and the opportunity to determine for themselves what must be provided and in what approach. Only then will their real needs be met. We see that in the youth service, older adults are "possible": those that are youthful than themselves can differentiate their needs from their wishes and permit their satisfaction with group assets if they’re wanted. [page 75]


196. Thus, the first step in altering the mannequin of a younger adult's work is the right to self-willpower. We hope that this will turn into even more necessary. One in every of the most necessary critics of current youth activities is that it isolates young individuals from the rest of society. As the Nationwide Social Providers Council says, we have been advised that youth organizations are encouraged to see themselves as a part of the entire group and to determine links between themselves and the adult world. But greater than this, as the Standing Conference of National Voluntary Organizations stated, it is very important discover methods in which young individuals with all talents can contribute to the nicely-being of society not solely via the group service, but by collaborating in the shaping of our society ”. Nevertheless, the proof from the present provision exhibits that there are too few places where young individuals are welcome to participate in some other society, and too few adults who’re prepared to see them as social companions, who’re expected to outline, as a joint activity. There are, in fact, necessary links between younger individuals and their mother and father, particularly those the place age is less necessary than the widespread objective or interest, for instance in bands, theaters or choirs, soccer matches and pubs. However even shared motion doesn’t mean that younger individuals are properly valued, and we consider that adult attitudes in the direction of younger individuals are by far the most patriotic. It is turning into clear that in the future adults should settle for young individuals as social and not have youngsters who are expected to play adult roles only in areas the place it is handy for adults to do so. The duty of the youth service is to advertise younger individuals's commitment to society and society. At this time we are talking about "participation" in many ways. An necessary goal of the Youth Service ought to be to facilitate the crucial and accountable participation of the growing era

197. Our proposal does not goal to realize a cushty integration of the youth and adult inhabitants, nor does it try and "socialize" young individuals in order that they reconcile with the established order and encapsulate it into its values. Nevertheless, such objectives are nonetheless widespread. For instance, they appear to be behind statements which are clauses similar to the national affiliation of Community organizations, in accordance with which "without the adult world, in their leisure time there is no possibility of exercising adult behavior in an adult society". We agree with the Nationwide Faculty that 'young individuals must be encouraged to seek out their own values ​​by means of their own experiences and social experiences'. Working with young adults will subsequently not be their social control software and should not be, as it isn’t suspicious.

198. The second objective with young adults must be to simply accept the values ​​of younger individuals and their constructive and constructive use. Identical to [page 76] younger individuals who have been sympathetic to adults, they have confidence in the management of their very own organizations, we hope they are going to be helped to discover how their actions affect others, and their relationship with the remainder of the group. We don’t need young individuals to know their place and comment solely on those issues which might be immediately affecting them. In an lively society, their place is all over the place, their feedback in all areas, as a result of every part is their concern. Thus, in line with the Nationwide Federation of Youth Organizations, youth organizations require younger adults to participate in native, nationwide and international selections. The purpose must be to provoke a dialogue between young individuals and the rest of society; a dialectical and not necessarily reconciling course of via which both events can study from one another and thus provide actual alternatives for progress in our society. Philip Toynbee did nicely when he stated. .. I feel it is applicable for every of us to make use of the capability and perceptions applicable to his age, and that if we do it appropriately – I imply each vigorously and generously – the tensions between the age groups are enlightened and fruitful "(2). to us as evidence: “Though expertise could be a great instructor, it isn’t the just one, and it may be misleading in many instances. Which means the mere acquisition of expertise can’t in itself offer you a better right to guage than those without experience but perhaps see more In fact, the older era can respond to this expertise as a necessity and the world is just not so simple and its issues cannot be solved as shortly as the young.

199. And opportunities he additionally takes duty for different farms and helps to shape the lifetime of the group, we do not bear in thoughts that he would solely apply democracy for future use in actual life; however somewhat that he would reside and immediately promote a democratic lifestyle. In truth, when the remainder of the group is underdeveloped, younger individuals working in this framework can act as a ginger group, so that youth work based mostly on the rules of group improvement can itself contribute to the improvement course of [19659008] 200. If our strategy becomes more widespread, it will undoubtedly involve young adults in action and discussion , that are controversial in nature and have up to now been labeled "political" and not as youth. organizations. This participation is a key issue in the success of an lively society, and only in this manner will it be capable of adapt to its youth and at the similar time give them the alternative to develop [page 77] real personal maturity; maturity that lots of their mother and father have by no means achieved

201. One warning phrase may be needed. We agree with National Schooling Institutions once they say they’re "concerned about the fact that a lot of lip service can be given to the idea that young people are challenging the values ​​accepted by the community, there is a fundamental concern that these values ​​are themselves, absolute and unproblematic." Anybody who reads this report ought to perceive that its strategy has vital implications. Those that are not looking for anything however quiet must be reconsidered.

Community Improvement Impacts

202. The standards for the success of present establishments are the extent to which they contribute to the Community improvement process, which is so totally different from the criteria used beforehand, what number of members, organizations or activities are obscure and increasingly troublesome to apply. We do not underestimate the problem of adopting these rules, and we perceive how not often such an strategy is presently adopted. Nevertheless, it is one which by its nature creates great flexibility, and we have been encouraged by some examples of achievements to consider that progress in this path is possible. We consider that there isn’t a long-time period response to the confusion of youth work, in addition to the progress and encouragement of Community improvement.

203. One comment we now have to make right here, and trust that it’ll not be misunderstood. It’s potential to intentionally commit to requirements of dedication, duty and self-willpower, however the effort to implement them has not yet been very strongly discovered; Community improvement in headlines does not assure group improvement within the group. Pseudo-dedication has its own dangers. If we select three examples, it is just to point out that even the greatest have to critically assess themselves and the worth of freedom is everlasting vigilance.

204. The primary is voluntary organizations. The present mannequin of voluntary youth organizations already exhibits rather a lot that younger Christian staff emphasize the similar consideration: social schooling, with a real partnership with adults, and the opportunity to debate urgent subjects without subjects. In reality, volunteer organizations ought to have the ability to present examples of group improvement for young individuals because they are superb examples of establishments that work for people who, on the foundation of their work, take duty for themselves and for others to do the similar. Nevertheless, evidence exhibits that grownup attitudes

[page 78]

in voluntary organizations are far too totally different from those in society. We subsequently call on present voluntary organizations to simply accept the significance of group improvement for their work in order that they will turn into main channels by way of which the Community can find ways to unravel their issues. Nevertheless, as we’ll explain later, this doesn’t mean that each one funds might be raised voluntarily

205. One other instance is the youth group service, which we’ve already talked about, and which is usually talked about for instance of part of the youth service the place younger individuals obtain actual participation in society. In this space, priceless work is being carried out, a big a part of which might be ignored if it were not for the efforts of those groups. Nevertheless, we consider that when young individuals can discover their own needs and determine what to do with them, they will typically go in the path of adults only; that once they need help to perform this, adults typically inform what they need to do as an alternative of being concerned in discovering needs and making selections; and that private service is usually thought-about to be the only objective, although young individuals might typically be helped and inspired to overcome this and assault the underlying causes of social problems. We subsequently contemplate that a more accountable position must be given to the younger individuals concerned. We’ll talk about the Community service in more element in the next chapter (paragraphs 242-246).

206. The third instance is group associations, which in principle can meet all the requirements of group improvement. At their greatest, they care for expressing the needs of individual and small teams by encouraging activity and accountability in determination-making. Emphasize the robust native efforts and the advantages of social health and personal schooling that can be derived from individuals from native communities who maintain one another via each spontaneous individual efforts and organized teams, identifying needs and promoting actions that achieve via personal efforts as much as public funds , at the time, they have been the cornerstone of a broadly designed coverage for creating adult schooling. Nevertheless, Community associations have typically not succeeded in securing vital Community involvement, regardless of their potential. What are the sources of the failure of these group organizations? How might they help to make them more environment friendly? They have definitely suffered from a scarcity of skilled staff and have typically been in the palms of individuals with little understanding of the central function of Community organizations. But we really feel that the lack of which means of their necessary trigger might be the lack of economic power; Public funds out there to group associations have been reduce to a minimum. We understand how troublesome their activity has been and how little official help and encouragement they’ve had [page 79]. Where attainable, organizations should search to finance their actions from personal sources. Nevertheless, modifications in the sum of money out there to Community organizations or their employees usually are not in themselves adequate. Their strategy needs to be clarified and their powers in the Community increased. Their duties have to be clearly outlined and supported by applicable inner reorganization. They need to be in the following areas; wellness, recreation, artwork and sports, and group providers. Their larger inclusion in the life of the Community ought to be achieved by representing them in essential native our bodies similar to chambers of commerce and faculty boards. Solely the progress of these connections with group organizations could be given the energy and duty to play a central position in the neighborhoods we wish them to have.

207. The policy already introduced by NFCA is that "all Community organizations should be concerned that the needs of young people can be adequately addressed, either through appropriate youth organizations or through their own actions". NFCA subsequently claims that Community associations "can and will make a significant contribution to the social education of young people". They really feel that associations can supply alternatives to young people who need to turn into adults, and say that "the democratic organization and organization of a community organization creates many opportunities for young organizations to unite adult society without losing their independence or purpose." If group associations turn out to be real group improvement organizations, we ask to make a radical reassessment of their work and ask themselves:

(a) How far do their movements permit individuals to determine their own wants and arrange themselves

(b) How far do younger adults and older individuals work collectively in specialised activities

] (c) How far are young adults accepted on equal phrases with older individuals – era and how far their thoughts can influence politics and determination

We consider it’s imperative that group associations adapt to the need for social improvement at a time of social change and that assist subsidies ought to mirror their response

Progress in adulthood

208. We’ve got proven that adults in the Community should treat older adults as adults. We have now additionally shown that present models of youth providers will not be suitable for young adults, and subsequently one has to ask in which period new approaches should start.

209. We don’t need to define 'maturity' too exactly on the foundation of age, authorized status or different particular person criteria. The maturity and maturity of adults [page 80] are assorted. Nevertheless, when the full authorized status of an adult is 18 years and the age of early faculty leavers reaches 16, it appears affordable to think about the end of the 16-17 youth part and the acceptance of some grownup obligations. some grownup rights. That is why we advocate that the youth service events start or enable adult and customer-oriented providers for younger individuals aged 16-17. We must additionally bear in mind that the most necessary shift in the lives of most young individuals is from faculty to work. Nevertheless, once we understand that younger individuals are creating at very totally different costs and that the figures present that the current youth service relies on a small number of older youngsters, particularly boys, we do not need to apply a inflexible line. Some younger individuals could also be tempted to organize for the age of 16 and over, and some older adolescents ought to be capable of help deliberate actions for younger age groups. The potential for some overlaps ought to be accepted by the customer.

210. Because of this, we are involved that we’re creating a provision that recognizes and promotes the maturity and wants of younger individuals aged 16 and over who’ve started faculty. We simply settle for that some young individuals are interested in it at an earlier age and others move on to it later

Political Schooling

211. There’s little political schooling for young individuals in this nation. The reasons are clear. We are avoiding this concern because they are controversial. We are aware of the thin line that divides political schooling from political indoctrination. Many issues are related to celebration loyalty, and it is all the time troublesome to differentiate between politics and get together politics. Regardless of the difficulties, the result is that we exclude many ethical points from the schooling course of and from generational discussions. Politics is in life and how individuals stay collectively. We see a brand new service that gives young individuals a wide range of alternatives to discuss controversial issues and share society's opinion-forming. These alternatives are even more necessary when the voting age is decreased to 18, as we predicted.

212. One a part of this matter is filled with difficulties, however it have to be confronted. There’s practically no connection between youth service and political youth groups. At the native degree, they are separate and at national degree the solely hyperlink has been a member of the British Youth Council. Once once more we will perceive the causes for the separation. Political youth teams are excluded from the youth service for 3 causes, apart from the common perception that young individuals are politically apathetic. To start with, because the youth actions of the Hitler youth and other totalitarian nations have been thought-about to be harmful precedents that show that such organizations might turn out to be state instruments; secondly, as a result of the age group differed from the youth service – they cope with individuals aged 15-25 or 30; thirdly, as a result of it was thought-about that central or local government funds could not and should not be given to political organizations, simply as it was not thought-about applicable to offer state monetary help to Church youth organizations before the Albemarle report.

213. We recognize the difficulties and question the knowledge of utilizing public funds to help get together political groups. Nevertheless, there are levels of recognition, unification and cooperation that don’t contain material help. Elsewhere in this report, we’ve proposed other businesses with which we see the similar partnership mannequin with business, for instance. If, on several events, we hope for a brand new service – "critical participation of young people in society" – to seek out nothing to satisfy, we can’t isolate political points and political groups, as this may avoid some of the most essential problems with our time. Partnership degree might be troublesome, however it needs to be sought and found.

Worldwide Understanding

214. Another fascinating area that is very important for younger individuals's life considerations relationships overseas and also those that develop into immigrants (three). There are totally different issues and opportunities, and no particular person strategy is usually recommended. One factor is obvious to us: the reality that a constructive instructional perform is to assist young adults higher perceive peoples and to appreciate and tolerate differences. We consider that this is an applicable and real looking aim for the private improvement stage, which is usually characterized by socialism and energetic curiosity in traveling at residence and abroad. One factor the institution ought to look into is its personal legal incapability to grant grants to young individuals to fund totally different overseas corporations and studies. In our opinion, it’s crucial that such corporations be inspired in view of international understanding. We now have noted with interest the work of the British Youth Council, the United Nations, international labor camps and comparable bodies in this area and would really like them to be inspired and supported by the Department.

Our Recipes

215. In fact, we acknowledge that, once we declare to emphasise group improvement, we may be in hazard of establishing a [page 82] stereotypical image of young individuals with one dominant function: eager to be actively concerned in their society. There are, in fact, other necessary wants – counseling, for instance, offering harm and particular needs; But these two points will not be interlinked as a result of many younger individuals need to be helped before they will take part in the group.

216. In the mild of those issues, we at the moment are ready to describe a youth service for younger individuals aged 16 and younger, whom we want to see as supportive as attainable for each help card. It’s true that we achieve this, not only because of our personal sense of restriction, but due to synthetic boundaries. In addition, we’re satisfied that improvement have to be based mostly on local information and self-willpower. It follows that more is to be stated about giving rules than specifying details; draft, not detailed plan

(a) The overall function of the service for 16-year-olds and young individuals ought to be the essential participation of young individuals in society, which is theirs. It should perceive that it isn’t only a cause, but in addition helps to determine what and how. It ought to think of itself efficiently when it sees them complaining of "wanting" our "circumstances"; great opposition to apathy and give up to participation and participation.

(b) If its personal house is supposed to be in order, it should supply real opportunities for younger individuals's programming and determination-making. self;

(c) It shouldn’t be regarded as a building or membership-based mostly service, however primarily as a dialogue between young adults and other group members. For the sake of flexibility, it should be capable of take many varieties – only one among them can be organizations; and it ought to be seen in many various places, of which just one is a faculty or continuing schooling institution.

d) It ought to consider the specific wants of certain social teams and individuals, whether or not disabled or with particular pursuits; and it also needs to take into consideration the improvement duties of our younger grownup society, duties related to work and marriage and status.

(e) It ought to reply to young individuals as if they have been separated in the remainder of the Community, however ought to present their providers as a part of a Community organization. [page 83]

(f) It should subsequently be a part of the forces of "community development" and "community organization" and achieve power from it each inside and outdoors schooling; and if they’re weak or non-existent, it ought to seek to be the group's own artistic agent and provide opportunities for nice associations.

217. These hopes have many effects in many locations: totally different businesses of the current youth service; for non-youth businesses with main duty for young individuals; For businesses, only a part of the work is with younger individuals. Vapaaehtoisia järjestöjä, yhteisöpalveluja ja yhteisöyhdistyksiä, tutkimusta, johtamiskoulutusta, hallintoa sekä kouluja ja jatkokoulutuslaitoksia käsitellään tämän kertomuksen muissa osissa; mutta haluaisimme tuoda esiin vaikutuksia joihinkin nuorisotyön kumppaneihin

Joitakin vaikutuksia


218. Although few would disagree with the Albemarle dictum that an necessary purpose and technique in youth work is pastoral, it is onerous to assess the contribution of the church buildings to group improvement both in their work amongst all age groups or more particularly amongst younger adults. There are too many variables for any generalisations. Some church buildings seem to segregate their members, young and previous, from the group. They could in fact create some sort of group within their very own boundaries by bringing previous and young collectively in widespread enterprise and shared tasks though this group may be isolated from the wider group outdoors the spiritual organisation. In some instances the church has been the catalyst for group improvement in the complete state of affairs. For instance, many flourishing youth centres owe their institution to conferences for the entire neighbourhood referred to as by the clergy to think about this need in the space.

219. We don’t want to tread too firmly on theological and ecclesiastical floor. Yet we venture to recommend that there are three marked developments at present in the churches themselves which affirm slightly than deny the central theme of our report. The first is theological. In the publish-warfare interval the church buildings have been impressed by Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s stress on ‘man’s coming of age’ (a free translation of a German phrase which accurately means ‘having a mouth of his own’). One clear implication of this emphasis is that it isn’t inconsistent with a Christian view of the world to see man in the twentieth century as referred to as upon to unravel extra and extra of his own issues. The second is reflection upon the area of Christian concern and obedience. More and extra Christians are speaking about ‘involvement in the secular situation’ and this at the very least means serving God and man in the group and not merely and even primarily in the  [page 84] spiritual organisation. A well-liked spiritual guide of the previous decade described the spiritual quest at present as for ‘the gracious neighbour’(4).The third development is the ecumenical motion which appears with less and less favour on slender denominational loyalties which in the past have operated to isolate spiritual organisations from one another and the group. Additional, in some locations the Anglican church is practising group and staff ministries which frequently contain educated full-time lay staff and is getting ready to implement the Church Meeting motion to determine part-time clergy.

220. The logic of those developments is that the Church buildings ought to contemplate their position in relation to the process and opportunities of group improvement. How far is it in line with their faith—indeed in the twentieth century how far is it an inevitable consequence of their religion—that they should put a big part of their effort into the encouragement of people to determine their very own wants, develop their own assets to satisfy them and thus (virtually in the language of faith) to achieve their true stature and dignity in the Universe by learning to control themselves extra and more? Particularly there are implications here for the work of the Churches among younger individuals. But there can be additional implications in the training of clergy and others for spiritual organisations and the outlook of local church buildings. We want to invite the church buildings to offer critical consideration to the situation we’ve got raised.

221. Two further factors are essential. One is that the church buildings are poised to make a serious contribution since they are comparatively properly-provided with manpower and premises. Secondly, though we’ve used the Christian Church buildings as our example we’ve comparable hopes of different religions in the land.

222. We conclude that the Churches ought to:

(a) Think about their work in relation to the concept and opportunities of group improvement.

(b) Research the implications of this strategy for the coaching of the clergy, half-time clergy and laity, and for the follow of group and staff ministries.

(c) Think about means of sharing more extensively their provision and personnel with the group as an entire.

Commerce unions

223. We now have seen that the TUC has clear and nicely-directed views of the position which the Youth Service ought to be fulfilling, and of the reasons for what they see as its present failings. But our experience has been that the individual commerce unions are themselves failing in their remedy of younger individuals. Their instructional schemes for younger individuals are more spectacular on paper than in [page 85] follow; attendances are often poor, and the goals of those conducting and attending programs ailing-outlined. On the subject of policy and choice-making within the unions young individuals appear not often to be concerned and are somewhat expected to know their place, leaving such matters to their elders who are too easily assumed to be their betters. At present it seems to be solely in industries like mining, the place a man’s working powers are at a peak early in his life, where a big variety of younger individuals are engaged, in any respect ranges, in the work of trade union branches. There might nevertheless be extra opportunities for real involvement by younger individuals at the store flooring degree, notably the place the average age of the ‘shop’ is low and the young can achieve confidence in the presence of their work-mates. Our conclusion is that the unions, maybe by their very nature, begin their approaches to young individuals from the basis of their ideology, moderately than from an concept of the wants of young individuals. Their contribution to the social schooling of the younger shouldn’t be underestimated— their energy is, in any case, great—but this schooling just isn’t obtained in the means we expect most useful—a discovery by the younger themselves, moderately than a requirement to fit right into a previously decided sample. Some change, enabling them to integrate younger individuals extra absolutely into the day-to-day affairs of the union department, would appear highly desirable. Moreover, without commerce union involvement, the modifications we now have advisable for business and commerce under are unlikely to be absolutely successful.

224. The Commerce Unions ought to subsequently seek to involve young individuals extra absolutely in:

(a) branch and store flooring exercise;

(b) the planning and administration of their instructional schemes.

Business and commerce

225. Many companies, primarily of medium and giant measurement (5), provide in depth recreational amenities for their staff: chiefly sports activities amenities but in addition such things as coffee bars and communal meeting locations. They are principally dedicated to industrial coaching schemes for those they make use of. Nevertheless the extent to which thought is given to the specific wants of the young appears to depend very much on the initiative of the personnel, schooling and training officers concerned. Our impression was of numerous conscientious and arduous, working individuals who have been anxious that their companies ought to make a real contribution to the welfare of their young staff. Nevertheless it appeared that too typically they started with a rigid concept of the needs of young individuals and of the provision it was applicable to make for them, and it seems to be the exception for them to contain younger individuals in selections concerning themselves. [page 86]

226. We are considering of one thing greater than the involvement of the industrial and business worker in the provision of his own leisure and instructional amenities. We are concerned together with his participation in the business of his agency. In this approach, young individuals might study duty, self-self-discipline, and leadership, not solely via the ‘character building’ schemes favoured by business and commerce, however on the manufacturing unit flooring and in the apprentice coaching scheme.

227. The creation of a participant group in business and commerce is just one facet of the half these organisations can play in group improvement. The Director of the Textile Council’s Schooling and Info Division informed us in proof that ‘there are dangers in having a too closely in-bred community centred in a small factory’; his cause was that ‘it is desirable that youth activities should be centred on a wider community’. Lord Pilkington has pointed out (6) that his firm ‘like many other industrial companies had splendid grounds and facilities very much under-used in places where there are many in the general community to whom use of these facilities would be an inestimable boon’. His company have, subsequently, determined that there must be an integration of their leisure amenities into the group, an arrangment of benefit to all concerned.

228. Community improvement isn’t a one-approach process. We’ve got seen examples of businesses in contact with young individuals at their locations of labor with the co-operation of the enterprise organisation concerned. As the Director of the Textile Council’s Schooling and Info Division stated, ‘there is a need for personnel officers, education and training officers in industry to work more closely with the Youth Service and the voluntary organisations’.

229. We want to see business and commerce encourage developments alongside these strains:

(a) Participation of younger individuals in their industrial communities.

(b) Higher integration of commercial personnel and welfare assets into the group.

(c) Larger co-operation between personnel, schooling and training officers, and youth and group staff with the specific object of identifying the assist that can be given by the latter group in the industrial and business state of affairs.

Business youth provision

230. The success of economic provision of bowling alleys, espresso bars, holiday camps, discotheques, and pubs in attracting older younger individuals wants [page 87] no proof. We agree with NAYSO once they argue that this success is because of the proven fact that ‘the commercial recognition of a young person’s independence confers the standing of social independence which the younger individual is in search of and to which he responds’. We saw good examples of this at the Manchester discotheques and the Billingham Discussion board.

231. Since considered one of our primary beliefs is that younger individuals must be allowed to find out for themselves their own leisure provision, it should seem at first sight as if this condition is totally fulfilled in aggressive business provision. Nevertheless, it is our belief that young individuals don’t operate in a wonderfully aggressive market: an present membership or coffee bar will typically have a virtual monopoly and to a large extent the young individuals should settle for what is offered to them with out much alternative for their own views to be taken under consideration.

232. We want to see more examples of shut co-operation between business and non-business suppliers. The business state of affairs provides the alternative to make contact and throws up pastoral needs which the suppliers are unable to satisfy. We recognise that it’s too much to anticipate males whose main interest is business to operate as youth staff but the proper contact between educated youth staff and business suppliers opens up appreciable prospects in offering actual help to young individuals. We have been glad to notice some proof of this duty being exercised by some business interests. The twin use of premises and integrated provision of assets of the sort that’s extra widespread in new cities is an extra example of potential co-operation, and allows quite a lot of must be met without gaps or duplication.

233. We contemplate, subsequently, that business provision can greatest contribute in the direction of the needs of younger individuals and its personal pursuits when:

(a) Young individuals’s views are taken under consideration.

(b) Co-operation is developed between business and other providers.

Future provision for the younger adult group

234. We consider that the rules of group improvement should play a vital part in all future work with young adults. The Youth Service businesses—the Division of Schooling and Science, the native schooling authorities, and the voluntary organisations—should accept it as the guideline behind their work; at current few do. In future, younger adults have to be given the probability to work issues by means of for themselves, and the opportunity to determine for themselves what must be offered and in what manner. Only thus will their real wants be met. This will likely nicely, in fact, imply that some amenities lengthy denied in some quarters, like alcoholic drinks for the over 18s,

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should be met. Nevertheless, removed from diminishing our argument, this solely serves to indicate the mistakes of previous approaches. We now have tried, nevertheless, to make it clear that our hopes for group improvement are broader than this. We hope that youth work organised along these strains will allow younger adults to turn into involved in the complete group.

235. We mention earlier the current physical isolation of much of the Youth Service. This is, in fact, very much the results of attitudes to the Youth Service, and with a change in attitudes, the complete planning and the place attainable the linking of group provision have to be accepted as a guideline for the future. In such circumstances alternatives are provided for informal interchange between numerous groups. In our context, because of this there would not solely be opportunities for affiliation between numerous teams of young adults, but in addition for interchange between the generations.


(1) Report of the Committee on the Age of Majority, (Cmnd. 3342), 1968.

(2)Observer, 23rd June 1968.

(3) See the Report of a Committee of the YSDC, ‘Immigrants and the Youth Service’, HMSO, 1967

(four) ’The New Reformation?’ J. A. T. Robinson (p.48). Penguin, 1965.

(5) Close to the state of affairs in small companies, see the Report of the Industrial Youth Challenge, NAYC, 1968.

(6) In an tackle to the Annual Common Assembly of the Central Council of Physical Recreation, 3rd November, 1967.

return to most important contents page for Youth and Community Work in the 70s

How you can cite this piece: Division of Schooling and Science (1969) Youth and Community Work in the 70s. Proposals by the Youth Service Improvement Council (The ‘Fairbairn-Milson Report’), London: HMSO. Extracts in the informal schooling archives,

This piece has been reproduced here by the casual schooling homepage beneath licence from from the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland. The casual schooling homepage holds a licence to breed public service info and one other to reproduce Parliamentary materials.

First positioned in the archives: April 2003 Updated June 2019.

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